Pelvic Venous Insufficiency, Treatment, Technical Aspects:
The goal of eliminating gonadal venous reflux is aimed at re-routing the flow of venous blood away from the pelvis and eradicating the incompetent veins.
A small sterile catheter (imagine a very fine drinking straw) is inserted into the incompetent gonadal veins using X-ray guidance from a tiny incision in the groin or neck. Contrast dye is injected into the veins to document that the blood is indeed flowing in the wrong direction. Once confirmed, small coils (imagine the tiny spring in a ballpoint pen) are deployed into the vein, again using X-ray guidance to block the flow of blood.
Once the appropriate veins are blocked, the blood is re-routed to the central venous drainage.
This process stops the blood from flowing through the broken veins, thus alleviating the venous pooling in the pelvis thereby decreasing pain and discomfort.
Imagine that a waterfall was flowing rapidly with a large volume of water. Once there is an adequate dam in place, the water will find other natural ways to flow to the central system. Additionally, once the flow of water is stopped the pools below the waterfall will recede. I think that this analogy provides the best visual example to understanding venous reflux.